The structure of agricultural production in ancient Egypt
Agriculture was very important in ancient Egypt. One of the oldest geographies where agriculture is done is around the Nile river. Agricultural production has been done systematically in this region for millennia.
In ancient Egypt, agriculture varied according to the fertility of the Nile and the precipitation and conditions of the season. In other periods, productivity would be higher, while in some periods it would be lower. The Nile River environment was very rich environment in terms of the products produced.
In addition to agricultural production, the tax was also very important for the Egyptian kingdom. These taxes ensured the continuity of the state. On the one hand, agriculture fed the people; on the other hand, it enabled the ancient Egyptian state to trade.
Egypt was one of the first places where agriculture was made due to its geographical conditions. The reason for this was the excess of solar heat and irrigation areas. The people living in this region dug canals and took the water from the rivers and brought it to their fields. They produced storable products.
In the archaeological excavations, it was revealed that agricultural production in ancient Egypt started in 5000 BC. In the early days, farming was done in villages and it was individual. After the Egyptian state started to get stronger and grow, taxes started to be taken from agriculture.
What did farmers do in ancient Egypt?
In ancient Egypt, farmers did not farm alone. Agriculture was a business for large and extended families. The rulers of these families would be the eldest of the families. Usually, that person would be the father or grandfather. These families worked as employees of the Egyptian kingdom while they were farming and they paid taxes.
Farmers in Egypt did not work only in summer, as in other states and countries. Due to the good climatic conditions in winter, they would farm for almost 12 months. In Egypt, the agricultural fields belonged to the god, the kings were the owners, and the farmers were the workers.
Products grown by farmers
Among the most commonly grown crops were barley and wheat. The reason for this was that it had storable production. Following these products, there was an excess of legume production. These were lentils, chickpeas, black-eyed peas and broad beans. Vegetable products are lettuce, parsley, zucchini and cucumber.
Among the fruits, there are only dates. No other evidence of fruit was found. Later, products such as different fruits, pears, grapes, figs and peaches were produced.